Pius XII


Pius XII
(1876–1958)
   Monsignor Eugenio Pacelli became pope following the death of Pius XI in 1939. As papal nuncio in Germany, he had negotiated the concordat with Nazi Germany in 1933. Skilled in diplomacy, the future Pius XII was a vehement anticommunist who viewed Nazi Germany sympathetically because of its strong stand against Bolshevism. With the outbreak of World War II, Pius XII adopted a policy of strict “impartiality” that resulted in his refusal to condemn Nazi atrocities, lest it compromise the Vatican’s ability to bring about a diplomatic solution to the conflict. Despite being among the first to learn of the Final Solution, Pius XII refrained from condemning Nazi Germany. He justified his silence with the argument that a public denunciation of Germany would have made matters worse for both Jews and German Catholics. Yet, despite his refusal to use the full force of his moral authority to condemn the Nazi extermination campaign against the Jews, Pius XII has been credited with saving the lives of hundreds of thousands of Jews and to have permitted Catholic clergy to open their monasteries and convents to hide Jews. In addition, he intervened in both Hungary and Slovakia and pleaded with their leaders to halt the deportation of Jews to Auschwitz. Pius XII’s ambiguous record in regard to the Holocaust continued after the war when in 1948 he requested mercy for all Nazi war criminals but was refused by General Lucius D. Clay.
   See also Christianity; Pius XI.

Historical dictionary of the Holocaust. . 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pius XII. — Pius XII. Pius XII. (bürgerlicher Name Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, * 2. März 1876 in Rom; † 9. Oktober 1958 in Castel Gandolfo) war von 1939 bis 1958 Papst der römisch katholischen Kirche. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • PIUS XII° — (1876–1958), pope from 1939. Born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, in Rome, he entered the Secretariat of State in 1901, was professor of ecclesiastical diplomacy at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy from 1909 to 1914, undersecretary… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Pius XII — (1876 1958) an Italian priest who became ↑Pope (=the leader of the Roman Catholic religion) in 1939. He was Pope during World War II …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Pius XII — (Eugenio Pacelli) 1876 1958, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1939 58. * * * orig. Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli born March 2, 1876, Rome, Italy died Oct. 9, 1958, Castel Gandolfo Pope (1939–58). Before succeeding Pius XI in 1939, he served… …   Universalium

  • Pius XII — (1876–1958)    Pope.    Pius was born Eugenio Pacelli. An experienced diplomat for the Vatican, he was appointed Cardinal and Papal Secretary of State in 1930. Among his many achievements was the signing of a concordat with the Nazi government of …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Pius XII — Eugenio Pacelli …   Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games

  • Pius XII — /ˈpaɪəs/ (say puyuhs) noun (Eugenio Pacelli), 1876–1958, Italian ecclesiastic; pope 1939–58; he kept silent concerning the extermination of Jews during World War II, wishing to preserve Vatican neutrality; the last absolute monarch of the Holy… …   Australian English dictionary

  • Pius XII — noun pope who maintained neutrality during World War II and was later criticized for not aiding the Jews who were persecuted by Hitler (1876 1958) • Syn: ↑Eugenio Pacelli • Instance Hypernyms: ↑pope, ↑Catholic Pope, ↑Roman Catholic Pope, ↑pontiff …   Useful english dictionary

  • Pius XII. - Der Papst der geschwiegen hat — Pius XII. – Der Papst der geschwiegen hat ist ein Buch von John Cornwell, das im Jahr 1999 (ursprünglich auf Englisch) veröffentlicht wurde. Der englische Titel des Buches Hitler s pope (Hitlers Papst) ist noch drastischer formuliert. Das Buch… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pius XII. – Der Papst der geschwiegen hat — ist ein Buch von John Cornwell, das im Jahr 1999 (ursprünglich auf Englisch) veröffentlicht wurde. Der englische Titel des Buches Hitler s pope (Hitlers Papst) ist noch drastischer formuliert. Das Buch kritisiert die Handlungsweise von Pius XII.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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