Bibliography


Bibliography
  INTRODUCTION
  The imposing number of books and articles that have been published in recent years about the Holocaust has made it necessary to prioritize the literature in regard to significance. As a consequence, a bibliography of the Holocaust must by necessity be the product of choices made by the compiler. The books, articles, films, websites, and other information included in the bibliography have been selected for the purpose of providing the user the widest and most recent resources available for the purpose of research and general information. Included are a number of books that are indispensable as an introduction to the subject, as well as monographs that are reliable and likely to withstand the test of time. Additional titles have been included because they are the only available source on a particular topic or because of their controversial arguments. The choices, therefore, reflect the author’s considered judgment as to which works continue to inform our understanding of the Holocaust.
  Given the thousands of excellent titles on the subject, it may be presumptuous to single out the most important volumes on the subject. Nevertheless, a number of works continue to retain their significance in the literature of the Nazi genocide and remain essential for an understanding of the Holocaust. Take the section “General Holocaust Histories,” for example. In this section a number of indispensable volumes on the Holocaust are listed. Readers will find Raul Hilberg’s The Destruction of the European Jews, which details the Holocaust from Nazi records and describes how they organized the machinery of state to murder millions of people. The same section also includes Lucy Dawidowicz’s The War against the Jews, 1933-1945, which is a comprehensive overview of the Holocaust and a book that makes the argument that the Final Solution was inherent in Nazi ideology. She goes on to argue that the war provided the opportunity to realize its objective of a Judenrein Europe. Dawidowicz also includes a valuable appendix that lists, country by country, the fate of European Jewry. Leni Yahil’s The Holocaust is an exhaustive study of the subject that details the Holocaust from the perspective of the victims. Unlike Hilberg’s work, Yahil accentuates the role of Jewish resistance in the Holocaust as well as the more sensitive issue of Jewish collaboration. Martin Gilbert’s The Holocaust is a general history of the Holocaust told primarily from the perspective of the eyewitnesses. The volume is very readable and an excellent introduction to the subject.
  Although a pioneering study, Hilberg’s The Destruction of the European Jews did spark controversy. The dispute focused on the assertion that the Judenrate (Jewish Councils) contributed to the annihilation of European Jewry by their obedient implementation of Nazi orders in the ghetto. This argument was joined by Hannah Arendt, whose Eichmann in Jerusalem, listed under “Resistance,” argues that had the Jewish Councils refused to carry out orders for the roundup of the Jews, it would have made it more difficult for the Nazis to conduct the deportations. The response to both Hilberg and Arendt can be found in Judenrat by Isaiah Trunk (same section). In the definitive work on the Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe, the author makes a compelling case that the Jewish Councils, given their enormous responsibilities, handled the situation circumstances as best they could under the most adverse conditions.
  Although there is little doubt that Nazi Germany was committed to exterminating the Jews of Europe, there is a body of literature that contends that the Final Solution was the product of an impromptu decision-making process that responded to the exigency of war. A number of books take this approach, but few are better than the works of Christopher Browning. The so-called functionalist approach to the Holocaust can be found in his Path to Genocide: Fateful Months, Ordinary Men and The Origins of the Final Solution (see “The Final Solution”). This argument is countered by the intentionalist school, which contends that the destruction of European Jewry was part of Adolf Hitler’s plans from the beginning of the Nazi movement. In addition to Lucy Dawidowicz’s The War against the Jews, an important work that argues that Hitler was obsessed with annihilating the Jews is Gerald Fleming’s Hitler and the Final Solution (see “Adolf Hitler”). A book that takes the intentionalist argument even further is Daniel Jonah Goldhagen’s Hitler’s Willing Executioners (see “Interpretative Works on the Holocaust”). Although his argument has been attacked by Holocaust historians, the book has received worldwide attention and has become, arguably, the most recognized title in Holocaust historiography.
  Goldhagen argues that the Holocaust was not uniquely the creation of the Schutzstaffel (SS) or the Nazi Party. Rather, the Final Solution won the overwhelming support of the German people because they were motivated by a virulent anti-Semitism that led them to believe that the Jews were the demonic enemy. This “eliminationist” anti-Semitism made the annihilation of the Jews a German national project, and when Adolf Hitler turned to the mass extermination of the Jews, he was able to enlist vast numbers of Germans to support the Final Solution. This argument has been dismissed by leading Holocaust historians, such as Christopher Browning, Raul Hilberg, and Yehuda Bauer, as simplistic, and Goldhagen is accused of being selective in his use of evidence. But the book became a best-seller in both the United States and Germany, where Goldhagen received a sympathetic audience. The publicity attended to Goldhagen’s book suggests that it is probable that if one book were read on the Holocaust, Goldhagen’s tome would be the volume, and the reader’s understanding of the Final Solution would be shaped by his arguments. There appears to be a continuing interest in Anne Frank, whose diary is the most widely read book on the Holocaust in primary and secondary schools. Scholars, students, and interested readers will find a section in the bibliography on Anne Frank, which includes a number of the more important books on the subject, including Anne Frank: The Book, the Life, the Afterlife by Francine Prose.
  The reader will find included in the bibliography a sufficient number of books that offer alternative explanations for the causes of the Holocaust. In addition to these monographs and interpretive works, a number of reference works are listed and should be consulted or purchased by libraries (see “Bibliographies and Encyclopedias”). The most indispensable of these books is the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, edited by Israel Gutman. Also listed in this section and recommended are the Bibliography of Holocaust Literature by Abraham and Hershel Edelheit; The Holocaust Encyclopedia, edited by Walter Laqueur; and The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, by Donald Niewyk and Francis Nicosia.
  The indispensability of books on the Holocaust cannot be overestimated. However, additional sources of information on the Holocaust have also enriched our understanding of the destruction of European Jewry. Specifically, the Internet (see “Internet Resources”) and film (see “Books on Holocaust Film” and “Selected Holocaust Films”) have become sources by which the general public, as opposed to community of scholars, have learned about the Nazi genocide. Holocaust Internet websites continue to provide useful information in regard to the Holocaust and a number of the most important are listed in the bibliography, including Yad Vashem (www.Yadvashem.org), located in Israel, which includes probably the world’s largest collection of information on the Holocaust. March of the Living (www.motl.org), a website for young people, is dedicated to teaching the lessons of the Holocaust. The H-net site brings together scholars and those interested in the Shoah to exchange issues relating to the Holocaust (h-net.org/Bibliographyholoweb/), and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (www.ushmm.org) reconstructs the history of the Holocaust through multiple media (see “Internet Resources”).
  Holocaust awareness and its continued interest among the general public owes as much to work of scholars as it does to film. Film, especially the evergrowing numbers of documentaries, have become important teaching tools in our educational institutions, often supplementing texts on the subject of the Holocaust. It would be difficult to ignore the impact of commercial films and documentaries, such as The Diary of Anne Frank, Judgment at Nuremberg, Schindler’s List, and the documentary Shoah, to name just a few, in calling the public’s attention to the Holocaust in the decades following World War II. Similarly, made-for-television films (see “Television Films”) such as Holocaust not only reached millions of viewers in the United States but also in West Germany, where it reached massive audiences and struck a nerve among the postwar generation. In fact, the film representation has spurred an increasing number of films and documentaries (see “Documentaries”) in both the United States and throughout Europe. The importance of this medium is recognized by its place in the bibliography, which includes a select number of commercial films and documentaries, both foreign and domestic, that have been released in theaters and on television and are considered exemplary representatives of the genre. The films listed in this section are available on DVD. To supplement the section on film, the bibliography also includes scholarly books on the Holocaust.
  The bibliography is divided into topical sections, each of which reflects a particular aspect of the Holocaust. The primary and secondary works listed under each section represent the most significant works on the subject. The choices also reflect a decision to make the bibliography “user friendly.” Since much of the important foreign literature on the Holocaust has already been translated into English, the author has resisted the temptation to overload the reader with sources in other languages. Nevertheless, many important books and articles that have not, as yet, been translated into English are included in the bibliography.
  The organization of the bibliography by subject necessitated combining secondary works with published articles, thus allowing the reader to find relevant citations in one place. Inasmuch as monographs and articles often become dated as a result of new research, the author has attempted to include the most recent scholarship in the bibliography as well as those scholarly works that remain important to our understanding of the Holocaust. Whenever possible, consideration was given to the availability of books and periodicals still in print, as well as their accessibility in most university and public libraries.
  REFERENCE WORKS
  1. Atlases
  ■ Freeman, Michael. Atlas of Nazi Germany. London: Croom Helm, 1987.
  ■ Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. New York: Pergamon Press, 1988.
  2. Bibliographies and Encyclopedias
  ■ Bloomberg, Marty, and Buckley Barry Barrett. The Jewish Holocaust: An Annotated Guide to Books in English. San Bernardino, Calif.: Borgo Press, 1995.
  ■ Edelheit, Abraham J., and Hershel Edelheit. Bibliography of Holocaust Literature. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1986.
  ■ Gutman, Israel, ed. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. 4 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1990.
  ■ ---. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. New York: Macmillan Library Reference, 1995. Reprint, 4 vols. into 2.
  ■ Laqueur, Walter. The Holocaust Encyclopedia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.
  ■ Levy, Richard S., ed. Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-Clio, 2005.
  ■ Megargee, Geoffrey, ed. Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos: 1933–1945.
  ■ Early Camps, Youth Camps, and Concentration Camps and Subcamps under the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA). Bloomington: Indiana University Press and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2009. 2 vols., Part A and B.
  ■ Niewyk, Donald, and Francis Nicosia. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
  ■ Szonyi, David M. The Holocaust: An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide. New York: Ktav, 1985.
  ■ Wistrich, Robert. Who’s Who in Nazi Germany. New York: Bonanza Books, 1982.
  3. Dictionaries
  ■ Edelheit, Abraham J., and Hershel Edelheit. History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1994.
  ■ Epstein, Eric Joseph, and Phillip Rosen. Dictionary of the Holocaust. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.
  PRIMARY WORKS
  4. Documents
  ■ Arad, Yitzhak, Yisrael Gutman, and Abraham Margaliot. Documents of the
  ■ Holocaust: Selected Sources on the Destruction of the Jews of Germany and Austria, Poland and the Soviet Union. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem and Pergamon Press, 1981.
  ■ Dobroszycki, Lucjan, ed. The Chronicles of the Lodz Ghetto, 1941–1944. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1984.
  ■ Eizanstadt, Stuart. Report on Nazi Theft of Jewish Assets. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.
  ■ Friedlander, Henry, and Sybil Milton, eds. Archives of the Holocaust. 23 vols. Westport, Conn.: Garland Press, 1989.
  ■ Hilberg, Raul, ed. Documents of Destruction: Germany and Jewry, 1933–1945. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1971.
  ■ Kugelmass, Jack, and Jonathan Boyarin, trans. From a Ruined Garden: The Memorial Books of Polish Jewry. 2nd exp. ed. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1998.
  ■ Mendelsohn, John, ed. The Holocaust: Selected Documents. New York: Garland, 1982.
  ■ Mendes-Flohr, Paul R., and Jehuda Reinharz, eds. The Jew in the Modern World: A Documentary History, 484–583. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.
  ■ ---. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. 8 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
  ■ ---. The Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, 14 November 1945–10 October, 1946. 42 vols., 1947. Reprint: New York: AMS Press, 1971.
  ■ Wyman, David S., ed. America and the Holocaust. 13 vols. New York: Garland, 1989–1990.
  5. Diaries and Memoirs
  ■ Amery, Jean. At the Mind’s Limits: Contemplations by a Survivor on Auschwitz and Its Realities. Trans. Sidney Rosenfeld and Stella P. Rosenfeld. New York: Schocken, 1986.
  ■ Beon, Yves. Planet Dora: A Memoir of the Holocaust and the Birth of the Space Age. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1997.
  ■ Brandon, Ray, and Wendy Lower. The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. Bloomington: Indiana University Press and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2008.
  ■ Breitman, Richard, Barbara McDonald Stewart, and Severin Hochberg. Refugees and Rescue: The Diaries and Papers of James G. McDonald, 1935–1945. Bloomington: Indiana University Press and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2009.
  ■ Celan, Paul. Selected Poems. Trans. Michael Hamburger and Christopher Middleton. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972.
  ■ Clare, George. Last Waltz in Vienna: The Rise and Destruction of a Family, 1842-1942. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1980.
  ■ Donat, Alexander. The Holocaust Kingdom. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1963.
  ■ Edelman, Marek. Shielding the Flame: An Intimate Conversation with Dr. Marek Edelman, the Last Survivor of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Trans. Joanna Stasinsk and Lawrence Wechsler. New York: Holt, 1986.
  ■ Eisner, Jack. The Survivor. New York: Morrow, 1980.
  ■ Fenelon, Fania. Playing for Time: The Musicians of Auschwitz. New York: Atheneum, 1977.
  ■ Frank, Anne. The Diary of a Young Girl. Trans. B. M. Mooyart. New York: Doubleday, 1967.
  ■ Frankl, Victor. Man’s Search for Meaning. New York: Pocket Books, 1984.
  ■ Friedlander, Saul. When Memory Comes. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1979.
  ■ Gay, Peter. My German Question: Growing Up in Nazi Berlin. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998.
  ■ ---. Hitler’s Table Talk, 1941–1944: His Private Conversations. 1953. Edited by Hugh Trevor-Roper. Introduction by Gerhard L.Weinberg. New updated ed. New York: Enigma, 2008.
  ■ Gilbert, Martin. The Boys: The Story of 732 Young Concentration Camp Survivors. New York: Henry Holt, 1997.
  ■ Graf, Malvina. The Krakow Ghetto and the Plaszow Camp Remembered. Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1989.
  ■ Hart, Kitty. Return to Auschwitz. New York: Atheneum, 1981.
  ■ Heppner, Ernst G. Shanghai Refuge: A Memoir of the World War II Jewish Ghetto. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
  ■ Hilberg, Raul, Stanislaw Staron, and Josef Kermisz, eds. The Warsaw Diary of Adam Czerniakow: Prelude to Doom. Trans. Stanislaw Staron and the staff of Yad Vashem. New York: Stein & Day, 1979.
  ■ Hillesum, Etty. An Interrupted Life: The Diaries of Etty Hillesum, 1941–1943. Trans. Arno Pomerans. New York: Pantheon, 1983.
  ■ Hoss, Rudolf. Commandant of Auschwitz. New York: World, 1960.
  ■ Kantor, Alfred. The Book of Alfred Kantor. New York: McGraw Hill, 1971.
  ■ Kaplan, Chaim. The Warsaw Diary of Chaim Kaplan. Ed. Abraham I. Katsh. New York: Collier, 1973.
  ■ Karski, Jan. Story of a Secret State. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1944.
  ■ Klemperer, Victor. The Language of the Third Reich: LTI-Lingua Tertii Imperii: A Philologist’s Notebook. New York: Continuum, 2006.
  ■ Kogon, Eugon. The Theory and Practice of Hell. New York: Berkeley Medallion Books, 1968.
  ■ Korczak, Janusz. Ghetto Diary. New York: Holocaust Library, 1978.
  ■ Lanzmann, Claude. Shoah: An Oral History of the Holocaust (The Complete Text of the Film). New York: Pantheon, 1985.
  ■ Lengyel, Olga. Five Chimneys: The Story of Auschwitz. Chicago: Ziff-Davis, 1947.
  ■ Levi, Primo. The Drowned and the Saved. New York: Summit Books, 1986.
  ■ ---. The Reawakening: A Liberated Prisoner’s Long March Home through East Europe. Trans. Stuart Woolf. Boston: Little, Brown, 1965.
  ■ ---. Survival in Auschwitz. New York: Collier, 1973.
  ■ Lewin, Abraham. A Cup of Tears: A Diary of the Warsaw Ghetto. Ed. Antony Polonsky, trans. Christopher Hutton. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988.
  ■ Lindeman, Yehudi, ed. Shards of Memory: Narratives of Holocaust Survival. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2007.
  ■ Niemoller, Martin. Here Stand I! Chicago: Willett, Clarke, 1937.
  ■ Orbuch, Sonia Shainwald, and Fred Rosenbaum. Here There Are No Sarahs: A Woman’s Courageous Fight against the Nazis and Her Bittersweet Fulfillment of the American Dream. Muskegon, Mich.: RDR Books, 2009.
  ■ Orenstein, Henry. I Shall Live: Surviving against All Odds, 1939–1945. New York: Touchstone, 1989.
  ■ Paskuly, Steven, ed. Death Dealer: The Memoirs of the SS Kommandant at Auschwitz by Rudolf Hoss. New York: DaCapo Press, 1992.
  ■ Pomerantz, Jack, and Lyric Wallwork Winik. Run East: Flight from the Holocaust. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
  ■ Redlich, Gonda. The Terezin Diary of Gonda Redlich. Ed. Saul S. Friedman and Laurence Kutler. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1992.
  ■ Ringelblum, Emmanuel. Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto. Ed. and trans. Jacob Sloan. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.
  ■ Robinson, Jacob. The Holocaust and After: Sources and Literature in English. Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press, 1973.
  ■ Sachs, Nelly. O the Chimneys! New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1967.
  ■ Szwajger, Adina Blady. I Remember Nothing More: The Warsaw Children’s Hospital and the Jewish Resistance. Trans. Tasja Darowska and Danusia Stak. New York: Pantheon, 1990.
  ■ Tec, Nechama. Dry Tears. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
  ■ Toll, Nelly S. Behind the Secret Window: A Memoir of a Hidden Childhood during World War Two. New York: Dial, 1993.
  ■ Tory, Abraham. Surviving the Holocaust: The Kovno Ghetto Diary. Trans. Jerzy Michalowica. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.
  ■ Wells, Leon. The Janowska Road. New York: Macmillan, 1963.
  ■ Wiesel, Elie. Night. New York: Avon Books, 1969.
  ■ Zyskind, Sara. Stolen Years. Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner, 1981.
  BOOKS ON THE HOLOCAUST BY TOPIC
  6. General Holocaust Histories
  ■ Aly, Gotz. The Final Solution. New York: Arnold, 1999.
  ■ Arad, Yitzhak. The Pictorial History of the Holocaust. New York: Macmillan, 1993.
  ■ Bauer, Yehuda, and Nili Keren. A History of the Holocaust. New York: Franklin Watts, 1982.
  ■ Bergen, Doris L. The Holocaust: A Concise History. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.
  ■ Botwinick, Rita Steinhardt. A History of the Holocaust. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996.
  ■ Dawidowicz, Lucy. The War against the Jews, 1933–1945. New York: Bantam, 1975.
  ■ Evans, Richard. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Press, 2003.
  ■ ---. The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin Press, 2005.
  ■ ---. The Third Reich at War. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.
  ■ Fischel, Jack. The Holocaust. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998.
  ■ Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe during the Second World War. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1985.
  ■ Grunfeld, Frederick V. The Hitler File: A Social History of Germany and the Nazis, 1918–1945. New York: Random House, 1974.
  ■ Kershaw, Ian. Hitler, the Germans, and the Final Solution. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2008.
  ■ Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. 3 vols. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1985.
  ■ Levin, Nora. The Holocaust. New York: Schocken Books, 1973.
  ■ Marrus, Michael. The Holocaust in History. Hanover, N.H.: University of New England Press, 1987.
  ■ Pauley, Bruce F. From Prejudice to Persecution: A History of Austrian Antisemitism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.
  ■ Reitlinger, Gerald. The Final Solution: The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe. New York: Beechhurst, 1953.
  ■ Weindling, Paul. Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism, 1870–1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  ■ Yahil, Leni. The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jews. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
  7. Traditional Anti-Semitism
  ■ Abella, Irving, and Harold Troper. None Is Too Many: Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1933–1948. New York: Random House, 1982.
  ■ Flannery, Edward H. The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of AntiSemitism Reviewed. New York: Paulist Press, 1985.
  ■ Gager, John G. The Origins of Anti-Semitism: Attitudes toward Judaism and Pagan Christian Antiquity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
  ■ Hay, Malcolm. Europe and the Jews: The Pressure of Christendom over 1900 Years. Chicago: Academy Chicago, 1992.
  ■ ---. The Roots of Christian Anti-Semitism. New York: Freedom Library, 1981.
  ■ Niemoller, Martin. Here Stand I! Chicago: Willek, Clarke, 1937.
  ■ Parkes, James. Anti-Semitism. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.
  ■ Passelecq, Georges, and Bernard Suchecky. The Hidden Encyclical of Pius XI. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1997.
  ■ Poliakov, Leon. Harvest of Hate. New York: Walden Press, 1979.
  ■ ---. The History of Anti-Semitism. 4 vols. New York: Vanguard, 1965–1975.
  ■ Tal, Uriel. Christians and Jews in Germany: Religion, Politics in the Second Reich, 1870–1914. Trans. Noah Jonathan Jacobs. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975.
  ■ Trachtenberg, Joshua. The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Antisemitism. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1961.
  8. Ideological, Political, Social, and Racial Anti-Semitism
  ■ Baumgarten, Murray, Peter Kenez, and Bruce Thompson, eds. Varieties of Antisemitism: History, Ideology, Discourse. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2009.
  ■ Berg, Scott. Lindbergh. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1998.
  ■ Burrin, Philippe. Nazi Anti-Semitism: From Prejudice to the Holocaust. New York: New Press, 2005.
  ■ Callil, Carmen. Bad Faith: A Forgotten History of Family, Fatherland, and Vichy France. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.
  ■ Chamberlain, Houston S. Die Grundlagen des neunzehnfen Jahrhunderts (The Foundation of the Nineteenth Century). Munich: Bruckmann, 1906.
  ■ Cohn, Norman. Warrant for Genocide: The Myth of the Jewish World Conspiracy. Chico, Calif.: Judaic Studies, 1981.
  ■ Fischer, Klaus. The History of an Obsession: German Judeophobia and the Holocaust. New York: Continuum, 1998.
  ■ Goodricke-Clarke, Nicholas. The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology. New York: New York University Press, 1985.
  ■ Jochmann, Werner. “Die Ausbreitung des Antisemitismus in Deutschland, 1914–1923.” In Gesellschaftskerise und Judenfeindschaft in Deutschland, 1870–1945, 99–112. Hamburg: Hans Christian Verlag, 1988.
  ■ Katz, Jacob. From Prejudice to Destruction: Anti-Semitism, 1700–1933. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.
  ■ Langmuir, Gavin I. History, Religion, and Anti-Semitism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
  ■ Large, David Clay. Nazi Games: The Olympics of 1936. New York: W. W. Norton, 2007.
  ■ Lindemann, Albert S. Esau’s Tears: Modern Anti-Semitism and the Rise of the Jews. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  ■ Massing, Paul W. Rehearsal for Destruction: A Study of Political Anti-Semitism in Imperial Germany. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1949.
  ■ Poliakov, Leon. The Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalist Ideas in Europe. New York: New American Library, 1977.
  ■ Spicer, Kevin P. ed. Antisemitism, Christian Ambivalence, and the Holocaust. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2007.
  ■ Viereck, Peter. Metapolitics: The Roots of the Nazi Mind. New York: Capricon Books, 1961. Revised eds., 1961, 1965.
  ■ Weiss, John. Ideology of Death: Why the Holocaust Happened in Germany. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996.
  ■ Wildt, Michael. An Uncompromising Generation: The Nazi Leadership of the Reich Security Main Office. Trans. Thomas Lampert. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009.
  ■ Wistrich, Robert S. Laboratory for World Destruction: Germans and Jews in Central Europe. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.
  ■ Zeskind, Leonard. Blood and Politics: The History of the White Nationalist Movement: From the Margins to the Mainstream. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2009.
  9. Weimar Republic
  ■ Bessel, Richard. Germany after the First World War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  ■ Bolkosy, Sidnet M. The Distorted Image: German Jewish Perceptions of Germans and Germany, 1918–1935. New York: Elsevier, 1975.
  ■ Gallin, Alice. Midwives to Nazism: University Professors in Weimar Germany, 1925–1933. Macon, Ga.: Mercer, 1986.
  ■ Gay, Peter. Freud, Jews, and Other Germans: Masters and Victims in Modernist Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
  ■ ---. Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
  ■ Laqueur, Walter. Weimar: A Cultural History, 1918–1933. New York: G. P. Putnams’s Sons, 1974.
  ■ Mosse, George. Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left and the Search for a Third Force in Pre-Nazi Germany. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1970.
  ■ Niewyk, Donald L. “The Economic and Cultural Role of Jews in the Weimar Republic.” Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 16 (1971): 163–73.
  ■ Stern, Fritz. The Politics of Cultural Despair. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961.
  ■ Szwajger, Adina Blady. I Remember Nothing More: The Warsaw Children’s Hospital and the Jewish Resistance. Trans. Tasja Darowska and Danusia Stak. New York: Pantheon, 1990.
  10. Adolf Hitler
  ■ Aronson, Shlomo. Hitler, the Allies, and the Jews. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  ■ Bankier, David. “Hitler and the Policy-Making Process on the Jewish Question.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 3 (1988): 1–20.
  ■ Bromberg, Norbert, and Verna Volz Small. Hitler’s Psychopathology. New York: International Universities Press, 1983.
  ■ Bullock, Alan. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. New York: Harper & Row, 1962.
  ■ Burrin, Philippe. Hitler and the Jews: The Genesis of the Holocaust. New York: Edward Arnold, 1994.
  ■ Davidson, Eugene. The Making of Adolf Hitler: The Birth and Rise of Nazism. New York: Macmillan, 1977.
  ■ Fest, Joachim. Hitler. Trans. Richard and Clara Winston. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, 1973.
  ■ Fleming, Gerald. Hitler and the Final Solution. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1984.
  ■ Gellately, Robert. Lenin, Stalin, Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. New York: Vintage Books, 2007.
  ■ Hamann, Brigitte. Hitler’s Wien. Munich: Piper, 1996.
  ■ ---. Winifred Wagner: A Life at the Heart of Hitler’s Bayreuth. New York: Harcourt, 2005.
  ■ Heiden, Konrad. Der Fuhrer. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1944.
  ■ Himmelfarb, Martin. “No Hitler, No Holocaust.” Commentary 76, no. 3 (March 1984): 37–43.
  ■ Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. Trans. Ralph Manheim. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1943.
  ■ Irving, David. Hitler’s War. New York: Avon Books, 1990.
  ■ Jackel, Eberhard. Hitler’s World View: A Blueprint for Power. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981.
  ■ Kershaw, Ian. Hitler, 1889–1936: Hubris. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998.
  ■ ---. Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000.
  ■ ---. The “Hitler” Myth. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.
  ■ Kubizek, August. The Young Hitler I Knew. Trans. E. V. Anderson. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1955.
  ■ Langer, Walter C. The Mind of Adolf Hitler. New York: Basic Books, 1972.
  ■ Lee, Albert. Henry Ford and the Jews. New York: Stein & Day, 1980.
  ■ Lukacs, John. The Hitler of History. New York: Knopf, 1997.
  ■ Maser, Werner. Hitler: Legend, Myth, and Reality. Trans. Peter and Betty Ross. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.
  ■ Miller, Alice. “Adolf Hitler’s Childhood: From Hidden to Manifest Terror.” In For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of Violence. 3rd ed., 142–97. New York: Noonday Press, 1990.
  ■ Rosenbaum, Ron. Explaining Hitler. New York: Random House, 1998.
  ■ Rosenfeld, Alvin H. Imagining Hitler. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.
  ■ Toland, John. Adolf Hitler. New York: Doubleday, 1976.
  ■ Trevor-Roper, H. R. The Last Days of Hitler. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  ■ Victor, George. Hitler: The Pathology of Evil. Washington: Brassey’s, 1998.
  ■ Waite, Robert G. L. The Psychopathic God. New York: Basic Books, 1977.
  11. Nazi Germany
  ■ American Jewish Committee. The Jews in Nazi Germany: A Handbook of Facts Regarding Their Precarious Situation. New York: American Jewish Committee, 1935.
  ■ Angress, Werner T. Between Fear and Hope: Jewish Youth in the Third Reich. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.
  ■ Baker, Leonard. Days of Sorrow and Pain: Leo Baeck and the Berlin Jews. New York: Macmillan, 1978.
  ■ Bankier, David. The Germans and the Final Solution: Public Opinion under Nazism. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.
  ■ Barkai, Avraham. From Boycott to Annihilation: The Economic Struggle of German Jews, 1933–1943. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1989.
  ■ Bendersky, Joseph. A History of Nazi Germany. Chicago: Nelson Hall, 1985.
  ■ Bergen, Doris L. Twisted Cross: The German Christian Movement in the Third Reich. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
  ■ Blumenthal, W. Michael. The Invisible Wall: Germans and Jews, a Personal Exploration. Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1998.
  ■ Bolkosky, Sidney M. The Distorted Image: German Jewish Perceptions of Germans and Germany, 1918–1935. New York: Elsevier, 1975.
  ■ Burleigh, Michael, and Wolfgang Wippermann. The Racial German State: 1933–1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  ■ Dodd, William E. Ambassador Dodd’s Diary. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1941.
  ■ Erickson, Robert P. Theologians under Hitler. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985.
  ■ Fischer, Klaus P. Nazi Germany: A New History. New York: Continuum, 1995.
  ■ Friedlander, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews: The Years of Persecution, 1933–1939. Vol. 1. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
  ■ Gellately, Robert, and Nathan Stolzfus, eds. Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001.
  ■ Gross, Leonard. The Last Jews in Berlin. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1982.
  ■ Heschel, Suzanne. The Aryan Jesus. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008.
  ■ Kamenetsky, Christa. Children’s Literature in Hitler’s Germany: The Cultural Policy of National Socialism. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1984.
  ■ Kaplan, Marion A. Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  ■ Kershaw, Ian. Popular Opinion and Political and Dissent in the Third Reich: Bavaria 1933–1945. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.
  ■ Klemperer, Victor. I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years, 1933–1941. Trans. and preface Martin Chambers. New York: Random House, 1998.
  ■ Koonz, Claudia. The Nazi Conscience. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 2003.
  ■ Levi, Erik. Music in the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
  ■ Lochner, Louis P., ed. The Goebbels Diaries, 1942–1943. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1948.
  ■ Lozowick, Yaacov. Hitler’s Bureaucrats: The Nazi Security Police and the Banality of Evil. New York: Continuum, 2002.
  ■ Merkl, Peter. Political Violence under the Swastika. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975.
  ■ Miller, Richard Lawrence. Nazi Justiz: Law of the Holocaust. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1995.
  ■ Nelson, Anne. Red Orchestra: The Story of the Berlin Underground and the Circle of Friends Who Resisted Hitler. New York: Random House, 2009.
  ■ Paucker, Arnold, ed. Die Juden im Nationalsozialistischen Deutschland: The Jews in Nazi Germany, 1933–1943. New York: Leo Baeck Institute, 1986.
  ■ Pehle, Walter H., ed. November 1938: From “Reichkristallnacht” to Genocide. New York: Berg, 1991.
  ■ Schoenbaum, David. Hitler’s Social Revolution: Class and Status in Nazi Germany, 1933–1945. New York: Doubleday, 1966.
  ■ Spielvogel, Jackson. Hitler and Nazi Germany: A History. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1988.
  ■ Stern, Fritz. The Politics of Cultural Despair. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961.
  ■ Trevor-Roper, Hugh, ed. Final Entries 1945: The Diaries of Joseph Goebbels. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1973.
  ■ Wienrich, Max. Hitler’s Professors: The Part of Scholarship in Germany’s Crimes against the Jewish People. New York: YIVO, 1946.
  ■ Wyden, Peter. Stella. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.
  12. Eugenics and Euthanasia
  ■ Burleigh, Michael. Death and Deliverance: “Euthanasia” in Germany: 1900–1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  ■ Carlson, Elof Axel. The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea. Cold Springs Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press, 2001.
  ■ Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
  ■ Glass, M. James. Life Unworthy of Life: Racial Phobia and Mass Murder in Hitler’s Germany. New York: Basic Books, 1997.
  ■ Gotz, Aly, Peter Chroust, and Christian Pross. Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene. Trans. Belinda Cooper. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.
  ■ Hillel, Marc, and Clarissa Henry. Of Pure Blood. Trans. Eric Mossbacher. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976.
  ■ Kuhl, Stefan. The Nazi Conscience: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  ■ Lifton, Robert J. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books, 1986.
  ■ Muller, Ingo. Hitler’s Justice: The Courts of the Third Reich. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991.
  ■ Muller-Hill, Benno. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others, Germany, 1933–1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
  ■ Proctor, Robert N. Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.
  ■ Weindling, Paul. Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism: 1870–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  13. The Ghettos of Occupied Europe
  ■ Arad, Yitzhak. Ghetto in Flames: The Struggle and Destruction of the Jews in Vilna in the Holocaust. Jerusalem: Akiva Cooperative Printing Press, 1980.
  ■ Bender, Sara. The Jews of Bialystok: During World War II and the Holocaust. Waltham, Mass.: Brandeis University Press, 2008.
  ■ Corni, Gustavo. “Hitler’s Ghettos: Voices from a Beleaguered Society, 1939–1944.” Central European History 37 (2004): 322–24.
  ■ Epstein, Barbara. The Minsk Ghetto, 1941–1943. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.
  ■ Graf, Malvina. The Krakow Ghetto and the Plaszow Camp Remembered. Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1989.
  ■ Gutman, Yisrael. The Jews of Warsaw, 1939–1943: Ghetto, Underground, Revolt. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
  ■ Hilberg, Raul, Stanislaw Staron, and Josef Kermisz, eds. The Warsaw Diary of Adam Czerniakow: Prelude to Doom. Trans. Stanislaw Staron and staff of Yad Vashem. New York: Stein & Day, 1979.
  ■ Hoffman, Eva. Shtetl: The Life and Death of a Small Town and the World of Polish Jews. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 1997.
  ■ Horowitz, Gordon J. Ghettostadt: Lodz and the Making of a Nazi City. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2008.
  ■ Kaplan, Chaim. The Warsaw Diary of Chaim Kaplan. Ed. Abraham I. Katsh. New York: Collier, 1973.
  ■ Kassow, Samuel D. Who Will Write Our History: Emanuel Ringelblum, the Warsaw Ghetto, and the Oyneg Shabes Archive. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.
  ■ Naimark, Norman. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.
  ■ Robinson, Jacob, and Phillip Friedman. Guide to Jewish History under Nazi Impact. New York: YIVO, 1960.
  ■ Szwajger, Adina Blady. I Remember Nothing More: The Warsaw Children’s Hospital and the Jewish Resistance. Trans. Tasja Darowska and Danusia Stak. New York: Pantheon, 1990.
  ■ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto. New York: Bullfinch Press, 1997.
  14. The Refugee Crisis, 1933–1945
  ■ Breitman, Richard, and Allen Kraut. American Refugee Policy and European Jewry: 1933–1945. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
  ■ Dwork, Deborah, and Robert Jan Van Pelt. Flight from the Reich: Refugee Jews, 1933–1946. New York: W. W. Norton, 2009.
  ■ Feingold, Henry L. The Politics of Rescue. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1970.
  ■ Friedman, Saul S. No Haven for the Oppressed: United States Policy toward Jewish Refugees, 1938–1945. Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1971.
  ■ Heppner, Ernst G. Shanghai Refuge: A Memoir of the World War II Jewish Ghetto. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
  ■ Jarvik, Laurence, director. Who Shall Live and Who Shall Die? New York: Kino International, 1982. 90-minute video.
  ■ Kranzler, David. Japanese, Nazis, Jews. New York: Yeshiva University Press, 1976.
  ■ Marrus, Michael. The Unwanted: European Refugees in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
  ■ Milton, Sybil. Rescue to Switzerland: The Missy and Sally Mayer Affairs. New York: Garland, 1982.
  ■ Robinson, Nehemiah. The Spain of Franco and Its Policies towards the Jews. New York: Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1944.
  ■ Ross, James R. Escape to Shanghai: A Jewish Community in China. New York: Free Press, 1994.
  ■ Wells, Allen. Tropical Zion: General Trujillo, FDR, and the Jews of Sosua. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2009.
  ■ Wyman, David. Paper Walls: America and the Refugee Crisis. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1968.
  15. The Consequences of the German Invasion of Poland and the Soviet Union
  ■ Bartov, Omar. The Eastern Front, 1941–1945: German Troops and the Barbarization of Warfare. London: Macmillan, 1985.
  ■ ---. Hitler’s Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
  ■ ---. Mirrors of Destruction: War, Genocide, and Modern Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  ■ Dallin, Alexander. German Rule in Russia, 1941–1945: A Study of Occupation Policies. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1981.
  ■ Dean, Martin. Collaboration in the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941–1944. New York: St. Marin’s Press, 2000.
  ■ Desbois, Father Patrick. The Holocaust by Bullets: A Priest’s Journey to Uncover the Truth behind the Murder of Six Million Jews. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  ■ Dobroszycki, Lucjan, and Jeffrey Gurock, eds. The Holocaust in the Soviet Union. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1993.
  ■ Ehrenburg, Ilya, and Vasily Grossman, eds. The Black Book. Trans. John Glad and James Levine. New York: Holocaust Library, 1981.
  ■ Ezergailis, Andrew. The Holocaust in Latvia, 1941–1944: The Missing Center. Riga: Historical Institute of Latvia, in association with the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1996.
  ■ Garrard, John, and Carol Garrard. The Bones of Berdichev: The Life and Fate of Vasily Grossman. New York: Free Press, 1996.
  ■ Grossman, Vasily. Life and Fate. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.
  ■ Hirschteld, Gerhard, ed. The Politics of Genocide: Jews and Soviet Prisoners of War in Nazi Germany. London: Allen & Unwin, 1986.
  ■ Jacobsen, Hans-Adolf. “The Kommissarbefehl and Mass Executions of Soviet Prisoners of War.” In Anatomy of the SS State. Ed. Helmut Krausnick et al., 505–35. New York: Walker, 1968.
  ■ Kuznetzov, Anatoly. Babi Yar. New York: Dell, 1967.
  ■ Levin, Dov. The Lesser of Two Evils: Eastern European Jewry under Soviet Rule, 1939–1941. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1995.
  ■ Mayer, Arno J. Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? New York: Pantheon, 1990.
  ■ Paul, Allen. Katyn: The Untold Story of Stalin’s Polish Massacre. New York: Scribner’s, 1991.
  ■ Rubinson-Ginaite, Sara. Resistance and Survival: The Jewish Community in Kauna, 1941–1944. Oakville, Ont.: Mosaic, 2005.
  ■ Schulte, Theo J. The German Army and Nazi Policies in Occupied Russia. Oxford: Berg, 1989.
  ■ Spector, Shmuel. The Holocaust and Volhynian Jews, 1941–1944. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1990.
  16. The Final Solution
  ■ Abrahamsen, Samuel. Norway’s Response to the Holocaust: A Historical Perspective. New York: Holocaust Library, 1991.
  ■ Adam, Uwe Dietrich. “The Gas Chambers.” In Unanswered Questions: Nazi Germany and the Genocide of the Jews. Ed. Francois Furet, 134–54. New York: Schocken Books, 1989.
  ■ Anger, Per. With Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest. New York: Holocaust Library, 1981.
  ■ Aronsfeld, C. C. The Text of the Holocaust: A Study of the Nazis’ Extermination Propaganda, from 1919–1945. Marblehead, Mass.: Michah, 1985.
  ■ Bankier, David. “Hitler and the Policy-Making Process on the Jewish Question.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 3 (1988): 1–20.
  ■ Bar-Zohar, Michael. Beyond Hitler’s Grasp: The Heroic Rescue of Bulgaria’s Jew. Holbrook, Mass.: Adams Media, 1998.
  ■ Bauer, Yehuda. “The Death Marches, January–May, 1945.” In The Nazi Holocaust: Historical Articles on the Destruction of European Jews. Vol. 9, ed.
  ■ Michael Marrus, 491–511. Westport, Conn.: Meckler, 1989.
  ■ ---. Jews for Sale? Nazi-Jewish Negotiations, 1933–1945. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1994.
  ■ Ben-Tov, A. Facing the Holocaust in Budapest: The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Jews of Hungary, 1943–1945. Geneva: Henry Dunant Institute and Martinus Nijhoff, 1988.
  ■ Borkin, Joseph. The Crimes and Punishment of I. G. Farben. New York: Free Press, 1978.
  ■ Braham, Randolph L. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. Vol. 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.
  ■ Breitrnan, Richard. The Architect of Genocide: Himmler and the Final Solution. New York: Knopf, 1991.
  ■ Browning, Christopher. Fateful Months: Essays on the Emergence of the Final Solution. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1986.
  ■ ---. The Final Solution and the German Foreign Office: A Study of Referat D III of Abteilung Deutschland, 1940–1943. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1978.
  ■ ---. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. New York: Harper Collins, 1992.
  ■ ---. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939–March 1942. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004. Cesarani, David. Becoming Eichmann. Cambridge, Mass.: DaCapo Press, 2006.
  ■ ---. Path to Genocide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  ■ Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide. New York: Free Press, 1979.
  ■ Ferencz, Benjamin B. Less Than Slaves: Jewish Forced Labor and the Quest for Compensation. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979.
  ■ Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
  ■ Friedman, Philip. Roads to Execution: Essays on the Holocaust. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1980.
  ■ Friedrich, Otto. The Kingdom of Auschwitz. New York: Harper Perennial, 1982.
  ■ Furet, Francois. “The Gas Chambers.” In Unanswered Questions: Nazi Germany and the Genocide of the Jews, 134–54. New York: Schocken, 1989.
  ■ Gerlach, Christian. “Die Wannsee-Konferenz, das Schicksal der Deutschen Juden und Hitlers Politische Grundsatzentscheidung, alle Juden Europas zu Ermorden.” Werkstattgeschichte 6, no. 18 (November 1997): 7–44.
  ■ Gilbert, Martin. Final Journey: The Fate of the Jews in Nazi Europe. New York: Mayflower Books, 1979.
  ■ Hartog, Kristen Den, and Tracey Kasaboski. The Occupied Garden. Toronto, Ont.: McClelland & Stewart, 2008.
  ■ Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. 3 vols. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1985.
  ■ Klarsfeld, Serge. French Children of the Holocaust: A Memorial. New York: New York University Press, 1996.
  ■ ---. La Memorial de la Deportation des Juifs de France. Paris: Klarsfeld Foundation, 1978. Published in English by the Klarsfeld Foundation in 1983 as The Memorial to the Jews Deported from France.
  ■ Koblik, Steven. The Stones Cry Out: Sweden’s Response to the Persecution of the Jews, 1933–1945. New York: Holocaust Library, 1988.
  ■ Kogon, Eugen, Hermann Langbein, and Adalbert Ruckerl, eds. Nazi Mass Murder: A Documentary History of the Use of Poison Gas. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1993.
  ■ Lang, von Jochen, ed. Eichmann Interrogated: Transcripts from the Archives of the Israeli Police. Trans. Ralph Manheim. New York: Vintage Books, 1984.
  ■ Langerbein, Helmut. Hitler’s Death Squads: The Logic of Mass Murder. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2004.
  ■ Lanzmann, Claude. Shoah: An Oral History of the Holocaust (The Complete Text of the Film). New York: Pantheon, 1985.
  ■ Lifton, Robert J. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books, 1986.
  ■ Marrus, Michael, and Robert O. Paxton. Vichy France and the Jews. New York: Schocken Books, 1981.
  ■ Michaelis, Meir. Mussolini and the Jews. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978.
  ■ Milton, Sybil. Rescue to Switzerland: The Missy and Sally Mayer Affairs. New York: Garland, 1982.
  ■ Mommsen, Hans. “The Realization of the Unthinkable: The ‘Final Solution of the Jewish Question’ in the Third Reich.” In The Policies of Genocide: Jews and Soviet Prisoners of War in Nazi Germany. Ed. Gerhard Hirschfeld, 98–99. London: Allen & Unwin, 1986.
  ■ Moore, Bob. Victims & Survivors: The Nazi Persecution of the Jews in the Netherlands 1940–1945. New York: Arnold, 1997.
  ■ Presser, Jacob. The Destruction of the Dutch Jews. Trans. Arnold Pomerans. New York: Dutton, 1969.
  ■ Rosenbaum, Alan S. Is the Holocaust Unique? Perspectives on Comparative Genocide. Boulder: Colo.: Westview Press, 1996.
  ■ Rummel, R. J. Genocide: Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1992.
  ■ Sabrin, B. F., ed. Alliance for Murder: The Nazi-Ukranian Nationalist Partnership in Genocide. New York: Sarpedon, 1991.
  ■ Scheffler, Wolfgang. “The Forgotten Part of the ‘Final Solution’: The Liquidation of the Ghettos.” Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual 2 (1985): 31–51.
  ■ Schneider, Gertrude. Exile and Destruction: The Fate of Austrian Jews, 1938–1945. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1995.
  ■ Sereny, Gitty. Into That Darkness: From Mercy Killing to Mass Murder. London: Andre Deutsch, 1974.
  ■ U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council. Planning Guide: Fifty Years Ago: From Terror to Systematic Murder. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1991.
  ■ Whittman, Rebecca. Beyond Justice: The Auschwitz Trial. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2005.
  ■ Zuccotti, Susan. The Holocaust, the French, and the Jews. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
  ■ ---. The Italians and the Holocaust: Persecution, Rescue, and Survival. New York: Basic Books, 1987.
  17. German Concentration and Death Camps
  ■ Adam, Uwe Dietrich. “The Gas Chambers.” In Unanswered Questions: Nazi Germany and the Genocide of the Jews. Ed. Francois Furet, 134–54. New York: Schocken Books, 1989.
  ■ Arad, Yitzhak. Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
  ■ Bartov, Omer. Murder in Our Midst: The Holocaust, Industrial Killing and Representation. New York: Oxford, 1996.
  ■ Berben, Paul. Dachau, 1933–1945: The Official History. London: Norfolk Press, 1975.
  ■ Brown, Daniel, Patrick. The Beautiful Beast: The Life and Crimes of SS Aufseherin Irma Grese. 2nd ed. Ventura, Calif.: Golden West Historical, 2004.
  ■ Donat, Alexander, ed. The Death Camp Treblinka: A Documentary. New York: Holocaust Library, 1979.
  ■ Dwork, Deborah, and Robert Jan van Pelt. Auschwitz: 1270 to the Present. New York: Norton, 1996.
  ■ ---. Children with a Star: Jewish Youth in Nazi Europe. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1991.
  ■ Feig, Konnilyn. Hitler’s Death Camps: The Sanity of Madness. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1979.
  ■ Fenelon, Fania. Playing for Time: The Musicians of Auschwitz. New York: Atheneum, 1977.
  ■ Gutman, Yisrael, and Michael Berebaum, eds. Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.
  ■ Hackett, David, ed., trans. The Buchenwald Report. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995.
  ■ Hill, Mavis M., and L. Norman Williams. Auschwitz in England: A Record of a Libel Action. New York: Stein & Day, 1965.
  ■ Kogon, Eugon. The Theory and Practice of Hell. New York: Berkeley Medallion Books, 1968.
  ■ Lagnado, Lucette Matalon, and Sheila Cohn Dekel. Children of the Flames: Dr. Josef Mengele and the Untold Story of the Twins of Auschwitz. New York: William Morrow, 1991.
  ■ Langbein, Hermann. Menschen in Auschwitz. Frankfurt: Ullstein, 1980.
  ■ Lengyel, Olga. Five Chimneys: The Story of Auschwitz. Chicago: Ziff-Davis, 1947.
  ■ Levy, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz. New York: Collier, 1973.
  ■ Madajcyk, Czeslaw. “Concentration Camps as Tools of Oppression in NaziOccupied Europe.” In The Nazi Concentration Camps: Structure and Aims, the Image of the Prisoner, the Jews in the Camps, 55–57. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1984.
  ■ Muller, Filip. Eyewitness Auschwitz: Three Years in a Gas Chamber. New York: Stein & Day, 1979.
  ■ Paskuly, Steven, ed. Death Dealer: The Memoirs of the SS Kommandant at Auschwitz by Rudolf Hoss. New York: DaCapo Press, 1992.
  ■ Plant, Richard. The Pink Triangle. New York: Henry Holt, 1986.
  ■ Reilly, Joanne. Belsen: The Liberation of a Concentration Camp. New York: Routledge, 1998.
  ■ Sofsky, Wolfgang. The Order of Terror: The Concentration Camp. Trans. William Templer. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997.
  ■ Troller, Norbert. Theresienstadt: Hitler’s Gift to the Jews. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
  18. Judenrate
  ■ Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem. New York: Viking, 1963.
  ■ Cohen, Yerachmiel (Richard). The Burden of Conscience: French Jewish Leadership during the Holocaust. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
  ■ Epstein, Leslie. King of the Jews. New York: Avon, 1980.
  ■ Robinson, Jacob. And the Crooked Shall Be Made Straight: The Eichmann Trial, the Jewish Catastrophe, and Hannah Arendt’s Narrative. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1965.
  ■ Trunk, Isaiah. Judenrat: The Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe under Nazi Occupation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
  19. Resistance
  ■ Ainsztein, Reuben. Jewish Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1974.
  ■ ---. The Warsaw Ghetto Revolt. New York: Schocken Books, 1979.
  ■ Cohen, Asher. The Halutz Resistance in Hungary, 1942–1944. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.
  ■ Edelman, Marek. Shielding the Flame: An Intimate Conversation with Dr. Marek Edelman, the Last Survivor of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Trans. Joanna Stasinska and Lawrence Wechsler. New York: Holt, 1986.
  ■ Fuchs, Abraham. The Unheeded Cry: The Life of Rabbi Michael Weissmandle. New York: Torah Umesorah, 1984.
  ■ Gutman, Yisrael. The Jews of Warsaw, 1939–1943: Ghetto, Underground, Revolt. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
  ■ Hebrew University of Jerusalem and New York Times. “Contemporary Jewry Oral History Collection. Pt. 2: World War II.” The Holocaust: Resistance and Rescue. Glen Rock, N.J.: Microfilming Corp. of America, 1975.
  ■ Krakowski, Shmuel. The War of the Doomed: Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942–1944. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1984.
  ■ Laska, Vera, ed. Women in the Resistance and in the Holocaust: The Voices of Eyewitnesses. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983.
  ■ Latour, Anny. The Jewish Resistance in France (1940–1944). New York: Holocaust Library, 1981.
  ■ Stroop, Jurgen. The Stroop Report: The Jewish Quarter of Warsaw Is No More! Trans. Sybil Milton. New York: Pantheon Books, 1979.
  ■ Suhl, Yuri, ed. They Fought Back. New York: Crown, 1967.
  ■ Syrkin, Marie. Blessed Is the Match: The Story of Jewish Resistance. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1947.
  ■ Tec, Nechama. Defiance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  ■ Trunk, Isaiah. Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution. New York: Stein & Day, 1982.
  20. Bystanders, the Churches, and Other Institutions
  ■ Aarons, Mark, and John Loftus. Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, the Nazis, and Soviet Intelligence. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991.
  ■ Baranowski, Shelley. The Confessing Church, Conservative Elites, and the Nazi State. New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1986.
  ■ Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  ■ Bergen, Doris L. “Catholics, Protestants and Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany.” Central European History 27 (1994): 329-48.
  ■ Conway, John S. The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, 1933–1945. New York: Basic Books, 1968.
  ■ Falconi, Carlo. The Silence of Pius XII. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.
  ■ Friedlander, Saul. Pius XII and the Third Reich: A Documentation. New York: Octagon Books, 1980.
  ■ Gutteridge, Richard. The German Evangelical Church and the Jews, 1879-1950. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.
  ■ Helmreich, Ernst Christian. The German Churches under Hitler: Background, Struggle, and Epilogue. Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1979.
  ■ Hilberg, Raul. Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe, 1933–1945. New York: Harper Collins, 1992.
  ■ Lewy, Guenter. The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany. New York: McGrawHill, 1964.
  ■ Littell, Franklin, and Hubert G. Locke, eds. The German Church Struggle and the Holocaust. San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1990.
  ■ Morley, John F. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust 1939–1943. New York: Ktav, 1980.
  ■ Passelecq, Georges, and Bernard Schecky. The Hidden Encyclical of Pius XI: The Vatican’s Loss of Opportunity to Oppose Nazi Racial Policies That Led to the Holocaust. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1997.
  21. Righteous Gentiles and Other Acts of Rescue
  ■ Anger, Per. With Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest. New York: Holocaust Library, 1981.
  ■ Bejski, E. “The Righteous among the Nations and Their Part in the Rescue of Jews.” In Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust: Proceedings of the Second Yad Vashem International Conference, April 1974. Ed. Y. Gutman and E. Zuroff, 627–47. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1977.
  ■ Block, Gay, and Malka Drucker. Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1992.
  ■ Carpi, Daniel. Between Mussolini and Hitler: The Jews and the Italian Authorities in France and Tunisia. Hanover, Mass.: Brandeis University Press.
  ■ ---. “The Rescue of Jews in the Italian Zone of Occupied Croatia.” In Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust: Proceedings of the Second Yad Vashem International Conference, April 1974. Ed. Y. Gutman and E. Zuroff, 465–507. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1977.
  ■ Flender, Harold. Rescue in Denmark. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1963.
  ■ Fogelman, Eva. Conscience and Courage of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor, 1994.
  ■ Friedman, Philip. Their Brother’s Keepers. New York: Crown, 1957.
  ■ Hallie, Philip. Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed. New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1979.
  ■ Hellman, Peter. Avenue of the Righteous. New York: Bantam, 1980.
  ■ Keneally, Thomas. Schindler’s List. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1982.
  ■ Levine, Hillel. In Search of Sugihara. New York: Free Press, 1996.
  ■ Maga, Timothy. “The Quest for a Generous America: Varian Fry and the Refugee Cause, 1940–1942.” Holocaust Studies Annual. Vol. 1, ed. Sanford Pinsker and Jack Fischel, 69–87. Greenwood, Fla.: Penkeville Press, 1983.
  ■ Ramati, Alexander. The Assisi Underground: The Priests Who Rescued Jews. New York: Stein & Day, 1978.
  ■ Rosenfeld, Harvey. Raoul Wallenberg, Angel of Rescue: Heroism and Torment in the Gulag. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus, 1982.
  ■ Ross, James R. Escape to Shanghai: A Jewish Community in China. New York: Free Press, 1994.
  ■ Schmitt, Hans A. Quakers and Nazis: Inner Light in Outer Darkness. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997.
  ■ Tec, Nechama. When Light Pierced the Darkness: Christian Rescue of Jews in Nazi-Occupied Poland. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
  ■ Zuccotti, Susan. The Italians and the Holocaust: Persecution, Rescue, and Survival. New York: Basic Books, 1987.
  22. Allies
  ■ Abella, Irving, and Harold Troper. None Is Too Many: Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1933–1945. New York: Random House, 1982.
  ■ Abzug, Robert H. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi Concentration Camps. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
  ■ Cohen, Michael J. Churchill and the Jews. London: Frank Cass, 1985.
  ■ ---. Truman and Israel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
  ■ Dinnerstein, Leonard. America and the Survivors of the Holocaust New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.
  ■ Feingold, Henry L. The Politics of Rescue. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1970.
  ■ Friedman, Saul S. No Haven for the Oppressed: United States Policy toward Jewish Refugees, 1938–1945. Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1971.
  ■ Gilbert, Martin. Churchill and the Holocaust. Hopkinton, N.H.: Dragonwyk, 1993.
  ■ Hamerow, Theodore S. Why We Watched: Europe, America and the Holocaust. New York: W. W. Norton, 2008.
  23. Controversy over the Bombing of Auschwitz
  ■ Erdheim, Stuart G. “Could the Allies Have Bombed Auschwitz-Birkenau?” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 11, no. 2 (Fall 1997): 129–70.
  ■ Gilbert, Martin. Auschwitz and the Allies. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1981.
  ■ Kitchens, James H. III. “The Bombing of Auschwitz Reconsidered.” Journal of Military History 58 (April 1994): 233–66.
  ■ Levy, Richard H. “The Bombing of Auschwitz Revisited: A Critical Analysis.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 10, no. 3 (Winter 1996): 267–98.
  ■ Markusan, Eric, and David Kopf. The Holocaust and Strategic Bombing: Genocide and Total War in the 20th Century. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1995.
  ■ Newton, Verne W., ed. FDR and the Holocaust. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
  ■ Rubinstein, William. The Myth of Rescue: Why the Democracies Could Not Have Saved More Jews from the Nazis. New York: Routledge, 1997.
  ■ Wyman, David S. “Why Auschwitz Was Never Bombed.” Commentary 65 (May 1978): 37–49.
  24. Response of American and Palestine Jewry to the Holocaust
  ■ Bauer, Yehuda. American Jewry and the Holocaust: The American Joint Distribution Committee, 1939–1945. Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1981.
  ■ ---. “Negotiations between Sally Mayer and the S.S.” Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust: Proceedings of the Second Yad Vashem International Conference, April 1974. Ed. Y. Gutman and E. Zuroff, 5–45. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1977.
  ■ Black, Edwin. The Transfer Agreement: The Untold Story of the Secret Pact between the Third Reich and Jewish Palestine. New York: Macmillan, 1984.
  ■ Edelheit, Abraham J. The Yishuv in the Shadow of the Holocaust: Zionist Politics and Rescue Aliya, 1933–1939. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996.
  ■ Feingold, Henry L. Bearing Witness: How America and Its Jews Responded to the Holocaust. New York: Syracuse University Press, 1995.
  ■ Finger, Seymour Maxwell. American Jewry during the Holocaust. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1984.
  ■ Gruber, Ruth. Haven: The Unknown Story of 1000 World War II Refugees. New York: Coward-McCann, 1983.
  ■ Lookstein, Haskal. Were We Our Brother’s Keepers? The Public Response of American Jews to the Holocaust. New York: Hartmore House, 1985.
  ■ Porat, Dina. The Blue and the Yellow Stars of David: The Zionist Leadership in Palestine and the Holocaust, 1939–1945. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990.
  ■ Teveth, Shabtai. Ben-Gurion and the Holocaust. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1996.
  25. Studies of Holocaust Survivors
  ■ Brenner, Reeve Robert. The Faith and Doubt of Holocaust Survivors. New York: Free Press, 1980.
  ■ Des Pres, Terrence. The Survivor: An Anatomy of Life in the Death Camps. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
  ■ Dwork, Deborah. Children with a Star: Jewish Youth in Nazi Europe. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1991.
  ■ Epstein, Helen. Children of the Holocaust. New York: Atheneum, 1977.
  ■ Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide. New York: Free Press, 1979.
  ■ Felstiner, John. Paul Celan: Poet, Survivor, Jew. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1995.
  ■ Gelissen, Rena Kornreich, with Heather Dune Macadam. Rena’s Promise: A Story of Sisters in Auschwitz. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.
  ■ Habe, Hans. The Mission. New York: Coward-McCann, 1966.
  ■ Lagnado, Lucette Matalon, and Sheila Cohn Dekel. Children of the Flames: Dr. Josef Mengele and the Untold Story of the Twins of Auschwitz. New York: William Morrow, 1991.
  ■ Langer, Lawrence Langer. Admitting the Holocaust: Collected Essays. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  ■ ---. Holocaust Testimonies: The Ruins of Memory. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1991.
  ■ Levy, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz. New York: Collier, 1973.
  ■ Lore, Shelly. Jewish Holocaust Survivors’ Attitudes toward Contemporary Beliefs about Themselves. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1984.
  ■ Meed, Vladka. On Both Sides of the Wall. Haifa: Ghetto Fighters’ House, 1972.
  ■ Moskovitz, Sarah. Love Despite Hate: Child Survivors of the Holocaust and Their Adult Lives. New York: Schocken Books, 1983.
  ■ Niewyk, Donald L. ed. Fresh Wounds: Early Narratives of Holocaust Survivors. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
  ■ Rabinowitz, Dorothy. New Lives: Survivors of the Holocaust in America. New York: Knopf, 1976.
  ■ Rothchild, Sylvia, ed. Voices from the Holocaust. New York: New American Library, 1981.
  ■ Vrba, Rudolf, and Alan Bestic. I Cannot Forgive. New York: Bantam, 1968.
  26. The Holocaust in Art, Literature, and Similar Topics
  ■ Appelfeld, Ahron. The Age of Wonder. Boston: Godine, 1980.
  ■ ---. Badenheim 1939. Trans. Dalya Bilu. New York: Pocket Books, 1980.
  ■ ---. The Iron Tracks. Trans. Jeffrey M. Green. New York: Schocken, 1998.
  ■ Avisor, Ilan. Screening the Holocaust: Cinema’s Image of the Unimaginable. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.
  ■ Bassani, Giorgio. The Garden of the Finzi-Continis. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.
  ■ Bellow, Saul. Mr. Sammler’s Planet. New York: Viking, 1970.
  ■ Bicker, Jurek. Jakob the Liar. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1975.
  ■ Blatter, Janet, and Sybil Milton. Art of the Holocaust. New York: Rutledge Press, 1981.
  ■ Bor, Josef. The Terezin Requiem. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1963.
  ■ Borowski, Tadeusz. This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen. New York: Viking, 1967.
  ■ Columbat, Andre Pierre. The Holocaust in French Film. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1993.
  ■ Costanza, Mary S. The Living Witness: Art in the Concentration Camps and Ghettos. New York: Free Press, 1982.
  ■ Daneson, Judith E. The Holocaust in American Film. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1987.
  ■ Epstein, Leslie. King of the Jews. New York: Avon, 1980.
  ■ Goodrich, Frances, and Albert Hackett. The Diary of Anne Frank. New York: Random House, 1956.
  ■ Green, Gerald. The Artists of Terezin. New York: Hawthorn, 1969.
  ■ ---. Holocaust. New York: Bantam, 1978.
  ■ Grossman, Vasily. Life and Fate. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.
  ■ Gurdus, Luba Krugman. Painful Echoes: Poems of the Holocaust. New York: Holocaust Library, 1985.
  ■ Hochhuth, Rolf. The Deputy. New York: Grove Press, 1964.
  ■ Hull, David. Film in the Third Reich: A Study of the German Cinema, 1933–1945. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.
  ■ Insdorf, Annette. Indelible Shadows: Film and the Holocaust. New York: Vintage Books, 1983, 2002.
  ■ Kaes, Anton. From Hitler to Heimat: The Return of History as Film. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989.
  ■ Kanink, Yoram. Adam Resurrected. New York: Atheneum, 1971.
  ■ Karas, Joiza. Music in Terezin, 1941–1945. New York: Pendragon, 1975.
  ■ Kuzentzov, Anatoly. Babi Yar. New York: Dell, 1967.
  ■ LaCapra, Dominick. History and Memory after Auschwitz. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998.
  ■ Lanzmann, Claude. Shoah: An Oral History of the Holocaust (The Complete Text of the Film). New York: Pantheon, 1985.
  ■ Lask, Israel Meir. Songs of the Ghetto. Tel Aviv: Eked, 1976.
  ■ Lind, Jakov. Landscape in Concrete. New York: Grove Press, 1966.
  ■ Littell, Jonathan. The Kindly Ones. New York: Harper Collins, 2009.
  ■ Loshitzky, Yosefa, ed. Spielberg’s Holocaust: Critical Perspectives on “Schindler’s List.” Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.
  ■ Malamud, Bernard. The Assistant. New York: Avon, 1980.
  ■ Miller, Arthur. Incident at Vichy. New York: Viking, 1965.
  ■ Milton, Sybil. The Art of Jewish Children: Germany, 1936–1941. New York: Philosophical Society. Morrow, Lance. “Television and the Holocaust.” Time, May 1, 1978: 53.
  ■ Muffs, Judith. The Holocaust in Books and Films. New York: Anti Defamation League, 1982.
  ■ Ozick, Cynthia. The Shawl: A Story and Novella. New York: Knopf, 1989.
  ■ Rentschuler, Eric. The Ministry of Illusion: Nazi Cinema and Its Afterlife. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.
  ■ Robinson, Jacob. The Holocaust and After: Sources and Literature in English. Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press, 1973.
  ■ Schwarz-Bart, Andre. The Last of the Just. New York: Bantam, 1961.
  ■ St. John, Robert. The Man Who Played God. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday, 1962.
  ■ Steiner, George. The Portage to San Cristobal of A. H. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979.
  ■ Steiner, Jean Francois. Treblinka. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1967.
  ■ Styron, William. Sophie’s Choice. New York: Random House, 1979.
  ■ Stuzkever, Abraham. Burnt Pearls: Ghetto Poems of Abraham Sutz Lever. Trans. Seymour Mayne. Oakville, Ont.: Mosaic Press, 1981.
  ■ Thomas, D. M. The White Hotel. New York: Pocket Books, 1981.
  ■ Toll, Nelly. Without Surrender: Art of the Holocaust. Philadelphia: Running Press, 1978.
  ■ Uris, Leon. Exodus. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday 1958.
  ■ ---. Mila 18. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961.
  ■ ---. QBVII. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday, 1970.
  ■ Veret, Paul. “Art and Music in the Shoah.” In Out of the Whirlwind: A Reader of Holocaust Literature, 259–82. New York: Doubleday, 1968.
  ■ Volavkova, Hana, ed. I Never Saw Another Butterfly. Trans. Jeanne Necova. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.
  ■ Wiesel, Elie. “Trivializing the Holocaust: Semi-Fact and Semi-Fiction.” New York Times, 16 April 1978, sec. 2.
  ■ Wiesenthal, Simon. Max and Helen. New York: Morrow, 1981.
  ■ ---. The Sunflower. New York: Schocken Books, 1970.
  ■ Yevtushenko, Yevgeny. “Babi Yar.” In Selected Poems. Trans. Robin MilnerGulland and Peter Levi. Baltimore, Md.: Penguin, 1974.
  ■ Young, James. The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and History. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1993.
  27. Perpetrators
  ■ Bartov, Omar. Hitler’s Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
  ■ Black, Peter. Ernst Kaltenbrunner: Ideological Soldier of the Third Reich. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984.
  ■ Bytwerk, Randall L. Julius Streicher: The Man Who Persuaded a Nation to Hate Jews. New York: Dorset Press, 1983.
  ■ Calic, Edouard. Reinhard Heydrich: The Chilling Story of the Man Who Masterminded the Nazi Death Camps. New York: Hippocrene, 1988.
  ■ Dmysryshyn, Basil. “The Nazis and the SS Volunteer Division ‘Galicia.’”American Slavic and East European Review, no. 15 (1956): 1–10.
  ■ Fenyo, Mario D. Hitler, Horthy, and Hungary. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1972.
  ■ Fest, Joachim C. The Face of the Third Reich: Portraits of the Nazi Leadership. Trans. Michael Bullock. New York: Pantheon Books, 1970.
  ■ Freiwald, Aaron, with Martin Mendelsohn. The Last Nazi: Josef Schwammberger and the Nazi Past. New York: W. W. Norton, 1994.
  ■ Golsan, Richard J. Memory, the Holocaust and French Justice: The Bousquet and Touvier Affairs. Trans. Lucy Golsan. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1996.
  ■ Hilberg, Raul. Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe, 1933–1945. New York: Harper Collins, 1992.
  ■ Hohne, Heinz. The Order of the Death Head: The Story of Hitler’s SS. New York: Coward-McCann, 1970.
  ■ Hoss, Rudolf. Commandant of Auschwitz. New York: World, 1960.
  ■ Kater, Michael H. The Nazi Party: A Social Profile of Members and Leaders, 1919–1945. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983.
  ■ Klee, Ernst, Willi Dressen, and Volker Riess, eds. “The Good Old Days.” In The Holocaust as Seen by Its Perpetrators and Bystanders. New York: Free Press, 1988.
  ■ Krausnick, Helmut, and Martin Broszat. Anatomy of the SS State. Cambridge: William Collins & Sons, 1968.
  ■ Langer, Lawrence. The Holocaust and the Literary Imagination. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1975.
  ■ Lemkin, Raphael. Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, Laws of Occupation-Analysis of Government, Propositions for Redress. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Foundation for International Peace, 1944. Reprint, New York: Howard Fertig, 1973.
  ■ Lumans, Valdis O. Himmler’s Auxiliaries: The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle and the German National Minorities of Europe, 1933–1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
  ■ Mattar, Philip. The Mufti of Jerusalem. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.
  ■ Merkl, Peter H. Political Violence under the Swastika: 581 Early Nazis. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975.
  ■ Michaelis, Meir. Mussolini and the Jews. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978.
  ■ Overy, R. J. Goering, the “Iron Man.” London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984.
  ■ Padfield, Peter. Himmler. New York: Henry Holt, 1991.
  ■ Posner, Gerald. Mengele: The Complete Story. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986.
  ■ Reitlinger, Gerald. The SS, Alibi of a Nation. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, 1956. Revised ed., 1981.
  ■ Reuth, Ralf Georg. Goebbels. Trans. Krishna Winston. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1993.
  ■ Sabrin, B. F., ed. Alliance for Murder: The Nazi-Ukrainian Nationalist Partnership in Genocide. New York: Sarpedon, 1991.
  ■ Segev, Tom. Soldiers of Evil: The Commanders of the Nazi Concentration Camps. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987.
  ■ Sereny, Gitta. Albert Speer: His Battle with Truth. New York: Knopf, 1995.
  ■ Steinberg, Jonathan. All or Nothing: The Axis and the Holocaust, 1941–1943. London: Routledge, 1990.
  ■ Van Der Vat, Dan. The Good Nazi: The Life and Lies of Albert Speer. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1997.
  ■ Wegner, Bernd. The Waffen-SS: Organization, Ideology and Function. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990.
  ■ Weisberg, Richard H. Vichy Law and the Holocaust in France. New York: New York University Press, 1996.
  ■ Wiesenthal, Simon. Justice Not Vengeance. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1989.
  ■ ---. The Murderers amongst Us. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.
  ■ Wildt, Michael. An Uncompromising Generation: The Nazi Leadership of the Reich Security Main Office. Trans. Thomas Lampert. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009.
  ■ Ziegler, Herbert F. Nazi Germany’s New Aristocracy: The SS 27 Leadership, 1925–1939. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.
  28. Gypsy Holocaust
  ■ Bauer, Yehuda. “Gypsies.” Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Vol. 2, ed. Israel Gutman, 634–38. New York: Macmillan, 1990.
  ■ ---. “Whose Holocaust?” Midstream (November 1980): 42–46.
  ■ Crowe, David M. A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1994.
  ■ Hancock, Ian. The Pariah Syndrome. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Karoma, 1986.
  ■ ---. “Responses to the Porajmos: The Romani Holocaust.” Is the Holocaust Unique? Perspectives on Comparative Genocide. Ed. Alan S. Rosenbaum, 39–64. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996.
  ■ ---. “Uniqueness of the Victims: Gypsies, Jews and the Holocaust.” Without Prejudice: International Review of Discrimination 1, no. 2 (1988): 45–67.
  ■ Kenrick, Donald, and Grattan Puxon. The Destiny of Europe’s Gypsies. New York: Basic Books, 1972.
  ■ Ramati, Alexander. And the Violins Stopped Playing. New York: Franklin Watts, 1986.
  ■ Yates, Dora. “Hitler and the Gypsies.” In On Prejudice: A Global Perspective. Ed. Daniela Gioseffi, 103–10. New York: Anchor Books, 1993.
  29. Interpretative Works on the Holocaust
  ■ Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem. New York: Viking, 1963.
  ■ ---. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt Brace & World, 1966.
  ■ Baldwin, Peter, ed. “A Controversy about the Historicization of National Socialism.” In Reworking the Past: Hitler, the Holocaust, and the Historian’s Debate, 102–34. Boston: Beacon Press, 1990.
  ■ Bartov, Omer. Murder in Our Midst: The Holocaust, Industrial Killing and Representation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  ■ Bauman, Zygmunt. Modernity and the Holocaust. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989.
  ■ Berenbaum, Michael, and Abraham J. Peck, eds. The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined. Bloomington: Indiana University Press and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1998.
  ■ Browning, Christopher. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.
  ■ Dawidowicz, Lucy S. The Holocaust and the Historians. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981.
  ■ Fischer, Klaus P. The History of an Obsession: Judeophobia and the Holocaust. New York: Continuum, 1998.
  ■ Friedman, Saul, ed. Holocaust Literature: A Handbook of Critical, Historical, and Literary Writings. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.
  ■ Fritzsche, Peter. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998.
  ■ Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Knopf, 1996.
  ■ Gordon, Sarah. Hitler, Germans, and the Jewish Question. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984.
  ■ Hartmann, Geoffrey. The Longest Shadow: In the Aftermath of the Holocaust. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.
  ■ Katz, Steven T. The Holocaust in Historical Context. Vol. 1. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  ■ Lipstadt, Deborah E. Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust. New York: Free Press, 1988.
  ■ Milgram, Stanley. Obedience to Authority. New York: Harper & Row, 1974.
  ■ Robinson, Jacob. And the Crooked Shall Be Made Straight: The Eichmann Trial, the Jewish Catastrophe, and Hannah Arendt’s Narrative. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1965.
  ■ Ross, Robert W. So It Was True: The American Protestant Press and the Nazi Persecution of the Jews. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.
  ■ Rubenstein, Richard. After Auschwitz. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merill, 1966.
  ■ ---. The Cunning of History: The Holocaust and the American Future. New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1975.
  ■ Rubenstein, William. The Myth of Rescue: Why the Democracies Could Not Have Saved More Jews from the Nazis. New York: Routledge, 1997.
  ■ Schleunes, Karl A. The Twisted Road to Auschwitz: Nazi Policy toward German Jews, 1933–1939. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1990.
  ■ Steiner, George. In Bluebeard’s Castle: Some Notes towards the Definition of Culture. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1971.
  ■ Weiss, John. Ideology of Death: Why the Holocaust Happened in Germany. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996.
  ■ Wyman, David, ed. The World Reacts to the Holocaust. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1996.
  30. Poland
  ■ Bethell, Nicholas. The War Hitler Won: The Fall of Poland, September 1939. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1972.
  ■ Davies, Norman. God’s Playground: A History of Poland. Vol. 2, 1795 to the Present. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.
  ■ Gross, Jan Tomasz. Polish Society under German Occupation: The GeneralGouvernement, 1939–1944. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979.
  ■ Gutman, Israel. The Jews of Warsaw, 1939–1943: Ghetto, Underground, Revolt. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
  ■ ---. “Poland: The Jews in Poland.” Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Vol. 3, ed. Israel Gutman, 1151–76. New York: Macmillan, 1990.
  ■ Heller, Celia. On the Edge of Destruction: The Jews of Poland between the Two World Wars. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976.
  ■ Hoffman, Eva. Shtetl: The Life and Death of a Small Town and the World of Polish Jews. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 1997.
  ■ Kaplan, Chaim. The Warsaw Diary of Chaim Kaplan. Ed. Abraham I. Katsh. New York: Collier, 1973.
  ■ Karski, Jan. Story of a Secret State. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1944.
  ■ Krakowski, Shmuel. The War of the Doomed: Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942–1944. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1984.
  ■ Lanzmann, Claude. Shoah: An Oral History of the Holocaust (The Complete Text of the Film). New York: Pantheon, 1985.
  ■ Lukas, Richard. Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles under German Occupation 1939–1944. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1986.
  ■ Madajczyk, Czeslaw. “Poland: General Survey.” Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Vol. 3, ed. Israel Gutman, 1143–51. New York: Macmillan, 1990.
  ■ Tec, Nechama. When Light Pierced the Darkness: Christian Rescue of Jews in Nazi-Occupied Poland. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
  ■ Vinecour, Earl. Polish Jews: The Final Chapter. New York: New York University Press, 1977.
  ■ Weinryb, Bernard. The Jews of Poland: A Social and Economic History of the Jewish Community in Poland from 1100 to 1800. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1973.
  31. Theological, Philosophical, and Ideological
  Responses to the Holocaust
  ■ Bauman, Zygmunt. Modernity and the Holocaust. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989.
  ■ Berkovitz, Eliezer. Faith after the Holocaust. New York: Ktav, 1973.
  ■ ---. With God in Hell. New York: Sanhedrin Press, 1979.
  ■ Burleigh, Michael. Ethics and Extermination: Reflections on Nazi Genocide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  ■ Dietrich, Donald J. God and Humanity in Auschwitz: Jewish-Christian Relations and Sanctioned Murder. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1995.
  ■ Erickson, Robert P. Theologians under Hitler: Gerhard Kittel, Paul Althouse and Emanuel Hirsch. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985.
  ■ Fackenheim, Emil L. God’s Presence in History. New York: New York University Press, 1970.
  ■ ---. The Jewish Bible after the Holocaust. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
  ■ Frankl, Victor. Man’s Search for Meaning. New York: Pocket Books, 1984.
  ■ Haas, Peter J. Morality after Auschwitz. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1988.
  ■ Huberband, Shimon. Kiddush Hashem: Jewish Religious and Cultural Life in Poland during the Holocaust. Ed. Jeffrey Gurock and Robert Hirt, trans. David Fishman. Hoboken, N.J.: Ktav, 1987.
  ■ Low, Alfred D. The Third Reich and the Holocaust in German Historiography: Toward the Historikerstreit of the Mid-1980s. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
  ■ Maier, Charles S. The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.
  ■ Melson, Robert F. Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
  ■ Peck, Abraham J. Jews and Christians after the Holocaust. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982.
  ■ Roth, John K., and Michael Berenbaum, eds. Holocaust: Religious and Philosophical Implications. New York: Paragon House, 1989.
  ■ Rubenstein, Richard L., and John K. Roth. Approaches to Auschwitz. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1987.
  32s. Anne Frank
  ■ Bloom, Harold, ed. A Scholarly Look at the Diary of Anne Frank. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1999.
  ■ The Diary of Anne Frank: The Revised Critical Edition. Prepared by the Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation, David Barnouw, and B. M. Mooyaart. New York: Doubleday, 2003.
  ■ The Diary of a Young Girl: The Definitive Edition. Ed. Otto H. Frank and Mirjam Pressler. Trans. Susan Masotty. New York: Doubleday, 1995.
  ■ Lee, Carol Ann. The Hidden Life of Otto Frank. New York: Collins, 2002.
  ■ Levin, Meyer. The Obsession. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1973.
  ■ Melnick, Ralph. The Stolen Legacy of Anne Frank. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.
  ■ Mintz, Alan. Popular Culture and the Shaping of Holocaust Memory in America. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.
  ■ Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1998.
  ■ Prose, Francine. Anne Frank: The Book, the Life, the Afterlife. New York: HarperCollins, 2009.
  ■ Robbins, Mari Lu. A Guide for Using Anne Frank’s “The Diary of a Young Girl” in the Classroom. Westminister, Calif.: Teacher Created Resources, 2007.
  ■ Roth, Philip. The Ghostwriter. New York: Vintage, 1979.
  ■ Schnabel, Ernst. Anne Frank: A Portrait in Courage. Trans. Richard Winston and Clara Winston. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1958.
  33. Restitution and the Holocaust
  ■ Aly, Gotz. Hitler’s Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2005.
  ■ Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold: The Full Story of the Fifty-Year Conspiracy to Steal Billions from Europe’s Jews and Holocaust Survivors. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.
  ■ Dean, Martin. Robbing the Jews: The Confiscation of Jewish Property in the Holocaust, 1933–1945. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2008.
  ■ Eizanstadt, Stuart. Report on Nazi Theft of Jewish Assets. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1997.
  ■ LeBor, Adam. Hitler’s Secret Bankers: The Myth of Swiss Neutrality during the Holocaust. Secaucus, N.J.: Birch Lane Press, 1997.
  ■ Marrus, Michael R. Some Measure of Justice: The Holocaust Era Restitution Campaign of the 1990s. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009.
  ■ Yahil, Leni. “Switzerland.” Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Vol. 4, ed. Israel Gutman, 1441–44. New York: Macmillan, 1990.
  ■ Ziegler, Jean. The Swiss, the Gold, and the Dead: How Swiss Bankers Helped Finance the Nazi War Machine. Trans. John Brownjohn. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1998.
  34. Holocaust Denial, Nazis, and Neo-Nazis
  ■ Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. Hitler’s Priestess: Savitri Devi, the HinduAryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
  ■ Hunt, Linda. Secret Agenda. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991.
  ■ Shermer, Michael, and Alex Grobman. Denying History: Who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and Why Do They Say It? Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
  ■ Stern, Kenneth S. Holocaust Denial. New York: American Jewish Committee, 1993.
  ■ Strum, Phillippa. When the Nazis Came to Skokie: Freedom for Speech We Hate. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2007.
  ■ Wiesenthal, Simon. The Murderers amongst Us. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.
  ■ Zeskind, Leonard. Blood and Politics: The History of the White Nationalist Movement from the Margins to the Mainstream. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2009.
  35. Books on Holocaust Films
  ■ Avisar, Ilan. Screening the Holocaust: Cinema’s Images of the Unimaginable. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.
  ■ Baron, Lawrence. Projecting the Holocaust into the Present: The Changing Focus of Contemporary Holocaust Cinema. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.
  ■ Bartov, Omer. The “Jew” in Cinema: From the Golem to Don’t Touch My Holocaust. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c2005.
  ■ Bernard-Donals, Michael. Between Witness and Testimony: The Holocaust and the Limits of Representation. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.
  ■ Colombat, Andre. The Holocaust in French Film. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1993.
  ■ Davis, Todd F., and Kenneth.Womack, eds. “The List Is Life: Schindler’s List as Ethical Construct.” In Mapping the Ethical Turn: A Reader in Ethics, Culture, and Literary Theory, 151–64. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001.
  ■ Doneson, Judith E. The Holocaust in American Film. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2002.
  ■ Erens, Patricia. The Jew in American Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.
  ■ Flanzbaum, Hilene, ed. The Americanization of the Holocaust. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
  ■ Friedman, Murray. “Jews in American Film and Television.” In Ethnic Images in American Film and Television. Ed. Randall M. Miller. Philadelphia: Balch Institute, 1978.
  ■ Furman, Nelly. “Called to Witness: Viewing Lanzmann’s ‘Shoah.’” In Shaping Losses: Cultural Memory and the Holocaust. Ed. Julia Epstein and Lori Hope Lefkovitz, 55–74. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001.
  ■ Gabler, Neal. An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood. New York: Crown, 1988.
  ■ Gilman, Sander L. “‘Smart Jews’: From The Caine Mutiny to Schindler’s List and beyond.” In Screening the Past: Film and the Representation of History. Ed. Tony Barta, 63–81. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998.
  ■ Haggith, Toby, and Joanna Newman. Holocaust and the Moving Image: Representations in Film and Television since 1933. New York: Wallflower, 2005. Herzstein, Robert Edwin. “The Jew in Wartime Nazi Film: An Interpretation of Goebbels’ Role in the Holocaust.” Holocaust Studies Annual 3 (1984): 177–88.
  ■ Hirsch, Joshua Francis. Afterimage: Film, Trauma, and the Holocaust. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004. Insdorf, Annette. Indelible Shadows: Films and the Holocaust. New York: Vintage, 1983, 2002.
  ■ Shandler, Jeffrey. While America Watches: Televising the Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  36. Selected Feature Films
  ◙ Amen (Germany-France). Dir. Costa-Gavras, 2002.
  ◙ Au Revoir Les Enfants (France). Dir. Louis Malle, 1987.
  ◙ The Believer (USA). Dir. Henry Bean, 2001.
  ◙ The Counterfeiters (Germany-Austria). Dir. Stefan Ruzowitzky, 2007.
  ◙ Defiance (USA). Dir. Edward Zwick, 2008.
  ◙ The Devil’s Arithmetic (USA). Dir. Donna Deitch, 1999.
  ◙ The Diary of Anne Frank (USA). Dir. George Stevens, 1959.
  ◙ Europa Europa (Germany). Dir. Agnieszka Holland, 1990.
  ◙ Everything Is Illuminated (USA). Dir. Lev Schreiber, 2005.
  ◙ Fateless (Hungary). Dir. Lajos Koltai, 2005.
  ◙ The Garden of the Finzi-Contini (Italy). Dir. Vittorio De Sica, 1970.
  ◙ Gloomy Sunday (Germany). Dir. Rolf Schubel, 1999.
  ◙ Good Afternoon, Mr. Wallenberg (Sweden). Dir. Kjell Grede, 1990.
  ◙ The Great Dictator (USA). Dir. Charlie Chaplin, 1940.
  ◙ The Grey Zone (USA). Dir. Tim Blake Nelson, 2001.
  ◙ Jakob the Liar (USA). Dir. Peter Kassovitz, 1999.
  ◙ Judgment at Nuremberg (USA). Dir. Stanley Kramer, 1961.
  ◙ The Juggler (USA). Dir. Edward Dmytryk.
  ◙ Korczak (Poland). Dir. Anrzej Waida, 1990.
  ◙ Left Luggage (Dutch-Belgium-USA). Dir. Jeroen Krabbe, 1998.
  ◙ The Man in the Glass Booth (USA). Dir. Arthur Hill, 1975.
  ◙ Music Box (USA). Dir. Costa-Gavras, 1989.
  ◙ Nowhere in Africa (Germany). Dir. Caroline Link, 2001.
  ◙ One Day You’ll Understand (France). Dir. Amos Gitai, 2008.
  ◙ Out of the Ashes (Poland-USA). Dir. Joseph Sargent, 2003.
  ◙ The Pawnbroker (USA). Dir. Sidney Lument, 1964.
  ◙ The Pianist (France-Germany-Poland-United Kingdom). Dir. Roman Polanski, 2002.
  ◙ The Reader (United Kingdom-USA). Dir. Stephan Daldry, 2008.
  ◙ Schindler’s List (USA). Dir. Steven Spielberg, 1993.
  ◙ The Search (USA). Dir. Fred Zinnemann, 1948.
  ◙ Ship of Fools (USA) Dir. Stanley Kramer, 1965.
  ◙ Sophie’s Choice (USA). Dir. Alan J. Pakula, 1982.
  ◙ Sophie Scholl (Germany). Dir. Marc Rothemund, 2005.
  ◙ The White Ribbon (Germany). Dir. Michael Haneke, 2009.
  37. Television Films
  ◙ Anne Frank: The Whole Story. Dir. Robert Dornhelm, 2001.
  ◙ Broken Glass. Dir. David Thacker, 1996.
  ◙ Conspiracy. Dir. Frank Pierson, 2001.
  ◙ The Diary of Anne Frank. Dir. Alex Segal, 1967.
  ◙ The Diary of Anne Frank. Dir. Boris Sagal, 1980.
  ◙ Escape from Sobibor. Dir. Jack Gold, 1987.
  ◙ God on Trial. Dir. John De Emmony, 2008.
  ◙ Haven. Dir. John Gray, 2001.
  ◙ Holocaust. Dir. Marvin J. Chomsky, 1978.
  ◙ Max and Helen. Dir. Phillip Saville, 1990.
  ◙ Never Forget. Dir. Joseph Sargent, 1991.
  ◙ Playing for Time. Dir. Daniel Mann, 1980.
  ◙ QBVII . Dir. Tom Gries, 1974.
  ◙ Quarrel. Dir. Eli Cohen, 1991.
  ◙ Skokie. Dir. Herbert Wise, 1981.
  ◙ Uprising. Dir. John Avnet, 2001.
  ◙ The Wall. Dir. Robert Markowitz, 1982.
  ◙ War and Remembrance. Dir. Dan Curtis, 1988.
  ◙ Winds of War. Dir. Dan Curtis, 1983.
  38. Documentaries
  ◙ As Seen through These Eyes (USA). Dir. Hilary Helstein, 2009.
  ◙ Berga: Soldiers of Another War (USA). Dir. Charles Guggenheim, 2003.
  ◙ Blood Money: Switzerland’s Nazi Gold (USA). Dir. Stephen Crisman, 1997.
  ◙ CANDLES: The Story of the Mengele Twins (USA). Dir. Gordon J. Murray, 1990.
  ◙ Death Mill. (USA). Dir. Billy Wilder, 1945.
  ◙ The Eighty-first Blow (Israel). Dir. David Bergman, Jacques Ehrlich, and Haim Gouri, 1974.
  ◙ Genocide (USA). Dir. Arnold Schwartzman, 1982.
  ◙ Hotel Terminus (France, USA). Dir. Marcel Ophuls, 1988.
  ◙ Imaginary Witness: Hollywood and the Holocaust (USA). Dir. Donald Anker, 2004.
  ◙ In the Shadow of the Reich: Nazi Medicine (USA). Dir. John Michalczyk, 1997.
  ◙ Into the Arms of Strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport (UK, USA). Dir. Mark Jonathan Harris, 2000.
  ◙ Jerusalem in the Woods (USA). Dir. Dean Ward, 2006.
  ◙ Killing Kasztner: The Jew Who Dealt with Nazis (USA). Dir. Gaylen Ross, 2009.
  ◙ Lodz Ghetto (USA). Dir. Alan Adelson and Kate Taverna, 1989.
  ◙ The Long Way Home (USA). Dir. Mark Jonathan Harris, 1997.
  ◙ The Memory of Justice (France, UK, USA, and West Germany). Dir. Marcel Ophuls.
  ◙ Mr. Death: The Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr. (USA). Dir. Errol Morris, 1999.
  ◙ My Knees Were Jumping: Memories of the Kindertransport (USA). Dir. Melissa Hacker, 1996.
  ◙ Nazi Concentration Camps (USA). Dir. George Stevens, 1945.
  ◙ Nazi Designers of Death (USA). Dir. Nova and Robert Jan van Pelt, 1995.
  ◙ Paper Clips (USA). Dir. Elliot Berlin and Joel Fab, 2004.
  ◙ Paragraph 175 (USA). Dir. Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman, 2000.
  ◙ Partisans of Vilna (USA). Dir. Joshua Waletzky, 1986.
  ◙ Prisoner of Paradise (Canada, Germany, UK, USA). Dir. Malcom Clarke and Stuart Sender, 2002.
  ◙ Rape of Europa (USA). Dir. Richard Berge, Bonnie Cohen, and Nicole Newnham, 2006.
  ◙ The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (USA). Dir. Jack Kaufman, 1968.
  ◙ Schindler: The Documentary (United Kingdom). Dir. Jon Blair, 1983.
  ◙ Shoah (France). Dir. Claude Lanzmann, 1985.
  ◙ The Sorrow and the Pity (France). Dir. Marcel Ophuls, 1969.
  ◙ To Bear Witness (USA). Dir. Gavin P. Boyle, 1983.
  ◙ Who Shall Live and Who Shall Die (USA), Dir. Lawrence Jarvik, 1982.
  39. General Repositories for Holocaust Archival
  Information, Collections, Documents, Websites, and Oral History Centers
  United States
  • Fred R. Crawford Witness to the Holocaust Project, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
  • Jewish and Slavic Divisions, New York Public Library, New York
  • Simon Wiesenthal Center Archives and Library, Los Angeles, California
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C.
  • United States Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • Leo Baeck Institute, New York
  • Yivo Institute Archives and Library, New York
  • National Jewish Resource Center, New York
  • Museum of Jewish Heritage, New York
  • Guide to Yale University Library Holocaust Video Testimony, 2nd ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University
  • Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies, Yale University Library, Geoffrey H. Hartman, Director
  • Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation, Los Angeles, California
  • American Red Cross; Holocaust and War Victims Tracing Information Center, Baltimore, Maryland
  Great Britain
  • Wiener Library, London
  Israel
  • Histadrut Archives, Tel Aviv
  • Yad Vashem, Jerusalem
  • Ben-Gurion Research Center, Kiryat Sde-Boker
  Poland
  • Main Commission for Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland, Warsaw
  • Institute of National Remembrance, Warsaw
  • Jewish Historical Institute of Warsaw
  Netherlands
  • Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation, The Hague
  Germany
  • Berlin Documentation Center, Berlin
  France
  • Center of Contemporary Jewish Documentation, Paris
  Italy
  • Center for Contemporary Jewish Documentation, Milan
  40. Internet Resources
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum at www.ushmm.org. The website reconstructs the history of the Holocaust through multiple media: The meaningful arrangement of objects as well as the . . . networking sites, like Facebook.
  The Holocaust Teacher Resource Center at http://www.holocaust-trc.org. The website includes numerous articles, book reviews, and lesson plans, as well as videos aboutmany aspects of the Holocaust.
  About.Com at www.about.com/Holocaust. The website includes a glossary, timelines, maps, lists of the concentration camps, other information, and a weekly electronic newsletter on issues related to the Holocaust.
  Anne Franks’s Life at www.Annefrank.com. This is the website for the Anne Frank Center and includes a 90-minute on-site program focusing students on in-depth observation and inquiry into the life of Anne Frank. The website also includes a screening of the documentary The Short Life of Anne Frank, and Holocaust survivors who share their personal stories.
  The H-NET List for History of the Holocaust at http://www.h-net.org/ Bibliographyholoweb/. A member of H-Net Humanities and Social Sciences On Line. H-Holocaust exists so scholars of the Holocaust can communicate with each other. This is primarily, though not exclusively, an academic list. Coverage of the list includes the Holocaust itself and closely related topics like antiSemitism and Jewish history in the 1930s and 1940s. The Nizkor Project at http://www.nizkor.org/index.html. The website is a response to Holocaust denial. It includes documents on most aspects of the Holocaust, including the Nuremberg Trials, the death camps, Holocaust research guides, and much more. It has a vast collection of Holocaust documents. Yad Vashem at www.yadvashem.org. The website is the Jewish people’s memorial to the murdered six million people and symbolizes the ongoing confrontation with the rupture engendered by the Holocaust. Containing the world’s largest repository of information on the Holocaust, Yad Vashem is a leader in Shoah education, commemoration, research, and documentation. The March of the Living at www.motl.org. The website is an international educational program that brings Jewish teens from all over the world to Poland on Holocaust Memorial Day, to march from Auschwitz to Birkenau, the largest concentration camp complex built during World War II, and then to Israel to observe Yom Ha Zikaron or Israel Memorial Day, and Yom Ha’Atzmaut or Israel Independence Day. The goal of the March of the Living is for these young people to learn the lessons of the Holocaust.
  Remembrance and Beyond at www.un.org/holocaustremeberance. The United Nations’ official website is devoted to the International Day of Commemoration in memory of the victims of the Holocaust, which was marked for the first time on 27 January 2006.
  The Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies at the University of Minnesota at www.chgs.umn.edu/webBiB/ is one of many national and international centers dedicated to the study of the Holocaust and contemporary genocide and teaching about the subjects.

Historical dictionary of the Holocaust. . 2014.

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  • bibliography — 1670s, the writing of books, from Gk. bibliographia the writing of books, from BIBLIO (Cf. biblio ) + graphos (something) drawn or written. Sense of a list of books that form the literature of a subject is first attested 1869. Related:… …   Etymology dictionary

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